A Glossary of Words and Phrases

admonished - reproved or rebuked

attested - indicated or proved

Chartist Movement - a political reform movement active between 1836 and 1848 which rallied support around a 'People's Charter' which made six simple demands: equal electoral districts; universal male suffrage; annual parliaments; no property qualifications for M.P.s; vote by ballot; and payment of M.P.s. All of these demands except annual parliaments are part of the present political system.

commutation - the changing of a sentence

divers - several

epiphany - the festival of Christ's manifestation to the Wise Men (6 Jan)

examinant -person being examined or questioned

felony/felonies - a serious crime which originally meant the offender forfeiting goods if convicted

freehold - outright ownership of property

hulk - a sailing ship, no longer fit to go to sea, which was stripped of its masts and used as a floating prison

insalubrity - unhealthiness

larceny - theft of goods. Grand Larceny was theft of goods over the value of 12 pence, Petty Larceny less than 12 pence

leasehold - the leasing of a property from the owner, even though this may be a lease for a lifetime or for a long period like 99 years

Lord Lieutenant - an officer appointed by the crown for each county. His duties included maintaining a trained and ready militia, and looking after the county's official records. These duties are now largely ceremonial.

mattock - a digging tool like a wide-bladed pick-axe

penthouse - a structure or "lean-to" built on to a building

Privy Council - a body of advisors chosen by the monarch from all the major political parties. Members bear the title "Right Honourable". Today this is regarded as a personal honour bestowed by the monarch to a senior politician who has served in parliament for some years

remission - lessening of sentence

shambles - benches where a butcher cut up his carcasses and where the meat was often displayed for sale

tallant - a hayloft above a stable or barn

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Text and documentation supplied by Powys County Council Archive Department