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The revolt of Owain Glyndwr
A brief chronology, 1401-1415

On Good Friday 1401 Conwy castle was captured by Owain’s supporters, and held for two months (much to the embarrassment of the English administration). Owain emerged from hiding, and threatened Harlech and Caernarfon. Henry IV led a second expedition into Wales in October 1401, but again it achieved little.
In this year Owain captured his old enemy, Reginald Grey, who was ransomed for a massive 10,000 marks (£6,666). Then in June he defeated a force under Edmund Mortimer, the young earl of March, at Pilleth near Presteigne. This time the government procrastinated and Mortimer betrothed himself to Owain’s daughter (significant, as he could actually claim a better right to the English throne than Henry IV, who was a usurper). The revolt had by now extended into Glamorgan and Gwent. In August 1402 Henry IV led a third expedition into Wales, but it was forced to retreat by torrential rain, leading the English to suggest that Owain could control the weather by magic.

This was another year of triumph for Owain, with raids in the south and west. Conwy, Aberystwyth and Cardiff castles were besieged. Henry led another raid in Wales, with the same results. Also in this year Owain allied with the Percy family’s (earls of Northumberland) revolt in England, which received a setback with Hotspur’s defeat and death at the battle of Shrewsbury on 21 July 1403. Also, Owain gained his first assistance from the French, a further sign that his ambitions were being realised.

This year was to be Owain's high point. English control was limited to the coastal fringe, and a few isolated castles. Harlech and Aberystwyth castles fell at last. Owain could truly claim to be national prince, and so held his first parliament at Machynlleth. On 14 July 1404 he made a formal alliance with France. By the end of the year John Trefor, bishop of St. Asaph, had joined Owain’s cause.

Map of England and Wales showing the three divisions allocated according to Owain's "Tripartite Indenture"  Decline
After that, things began to go wrong. Owain concluded a "Tripartite Indenture" with Edmund Mortimer and the earl of Northumberland, agreeing to divide England and Wales between them, an intention rather at odds with reality, especially after Percy’s rebellion collapsed in May. A French force landed and marched almost as far as Worcester, but was eventually obliged to withdraw.
Support for the rebellion began to crumble and Owain suffered a string of military defeats. In 1407 the French alliance collapsed; in 1408 the last of the English rebels including Percy were killed and Harlech and Aberystwyth recaptured. The rebellion slowly petered out into localised incidents. 
  Glyn Dwr was never captured, but gradually fades from the records, where he last appears in 1415; after which he enters mythology.
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